Excellencies, colleagues,

At its heart, the COP is a political process where key decisions are made about our shared future. I am pleased to say that at Pre-COP, recently concluded in Abu Dhabi, we saw positive engagement and encouraging progress on the political building blocks essential for our joint success at COP28. Pre-COP was a pivotal moment, signaling that the time for decisive action is now. Delegates from more than 80 countries, including more than 60 ministers, accepted my invitation to take part. I thank all who participated over the two days, where we enjoyed a rich exchange on many of the issues that will be key for the success of COP28. I am also very grateful for the participation of observers, who came from all corners of the globe and who testify to the inclusive ethos that lies at the heart of our COP mission. This spirit of inclusivity will continue as one of our guiding principles as we move forward, and I encourage the active engagement of all stakeholders on the Road to COP28. The atmosphere of optimism and unwavering resolve I witnessed at Pre-COP amid challenging geopolitical circumstances reinforces my belief that, together, we can make history in Dubai this December. I am attaching my closing remarks for your reference, containing my key conclusions (Annex I). A shared determination to make progress was also evident at a very constructive and focused meeting among Heads of Delegations immediately following Pre-COP on 1 and 2 November.It was encouraging to witness the sustained momentum at the Fifth Meeting of the Transitional Committee on Loss and Damage (TC5) in Abu Dhabi on 3 and 4 November. The agreement on recommendations on the operationalization of the Loss and Damage fund and funding arrangements is significant. This milestone marks a crucial step in responding to the adverse impacts of the climate crisis and supporting vulnerable communities. I continue to encourage early pledges by donors to ensure timely activation of the recommendations, following their consideration at COP28. The commitment that negotiators showed in overcoming their differences at TC5 paves the way for agreement at COP28, not only on this issue, but other complex political issues across all negotiation outcomes. We have shown that multilateralism can still deliver, but we have a lot of work to do. With 21 days remaining to the opening of COP28/CMP18/CMA5, we must further clarify the process to ensure we achieve the best possible outcome. A transparent, open, and inclusive process is essential as it fosters trust and consensus-building on all fronts.

Time will be the most valuable commodity at COP. Therefore, it is of utmost importance that we organize our work effectively to ensure that negotiators begin forging connections and finding shared positions from day one. To facilitate this, it is essential to reach consensus on the agendas for the COP, CMP, CMA, and Subsidiary Bodies, along with the organization of work, before 30 November. I am encouraged by the dedication to by all Parties and groups to show flexibility during the comprehensive agenda consultations we have undertaken to date. Making the best use of the time available in the first week is essential when Parties will be engaged in intense negotiations, both under the subsidiary and governing bodies. We must provide them with the necessary time and space to make as much progress as possible. We need to ensure that only the most pressing matters requiring political resolution are the focus of the second week. I urge ministers to direct their delegates towards this goal and to motivate their Heads of Delegation to take an active role in the first week's negotiations. This approach will help streamline the workload for the following week, especially on the Global Stocktake (GST). This COP offers the pivotal opportunity to formulate and deliver a robust response to the GST that will shape our collective commitment to climate action. The first GST will have a central role because of its cross-cutting nature. We must ensure there is consensus on the way forward. The intensive work over the past two years means there is substantial material already available. The thorough technical phase and the valuable submissions by Parties have provided clear focus. I encourage Parties to engage on text for a draft decision as soon as possible, building on elements from various inputs. I ask all Parties to support and work closely with Subsidiary Body Chairs Nabeel Munir and Harry Vreuls as they guide us forward to ensure that our collective efforts during the first week lay the foundation for a strong outcome at COP28. The momentum gained from the intersessional GST workshop in Abu Dhabi this October and the summary report on the refined elements of a GST outcome have been encouraging. During the World Climate Action Summit (WCAS) on 1 and 2 December, we will host three Highlevel Events focused on the GST, covering mitigation, adaptation, and the means of implementation. These events are mandated to be chaired by the High-level Committee and are intended to provide political guidance for the consideration of outputs phase of the GST. The Highlevel Committee will issue a summary of the events on 3 December, capturing key political messages delivered by Heads of State and Government. This summary is intended to contribute to the development of clear, political messages in the final CMA decision. The secretariat has already disseminated logistical information in a notification on 3 November. Additional details, including guiding questions for these High-level Events, will be shared shortly by the High-level Committee.

In addition to work under the Subsidiary Bodies, there will be a heavy workload on items managed directly under the COP, CMP and CMA, especially on finance-related issues. I urge all Parties to handle these issues in the most efficient manner possible in order to make significant progress during the first week. This approach will ensure that sufficient time can be given to a focused consideration of the strategic aspects of climate finance in the second week. We have greatly benefited from informal high-level political consultations, which have been led by pairs of ministers on my behalf. These have helped to ensure a frank, open exchange of views at Pre-COP, deepening our grasp of Parties’ expectations on the GST, mitigation, adaptation, and means of implementation. I appreciate the efforts of all the ministers who acted as facilitators at Pre-COP. Their summaries of discussions can be found in Annex II. Further outreach by the ministerial pairs leading up to COP will be limited, as formal negotiations among Parties take center stage on the Road to COP28 and during the first week. I look forward the continued support of the ministerial pairs during COP's critical second week. I urge you and your teams to use these final weeks wisely, especially when negotiators come together again in the pre-sessional week. As I said at Pre-COP, ministers must truly engage, roll up their sleeves, and lead. It's equally important for negotiators to genuinely listen to one another and work towards outcomes that can be owned by all and implemented by all. Please have the difficult conversations now, show flexibility, and foster a sense of shared trust and understanding. Now is the time to find common ground, ensure consensus, and resolve differences. If we succeed in coming together now, we have a huge opportunity before us. We can reimagine entire economies and put every nation on the path to a prosperous and sustainable future. So let’s unite, let’s act, and let’s deliver in Dubai.

COP28 President-Designate Closing Remarks

Your highnesses, excellencies, friends and colleagues. Allow me to thank the UN Deputy Secretary General, Amina Mohamed and the Executive Secretary of the UNFCCC, Simon Stiell for their partnership and support.

Let me thank you all once again for being here… and for all the work you have done to move this process forward. We are beginning to get the traction for action. Over the last two days, I have seen and heard a lot that gives me hope.Real conversations are taking place on the difficult issues. We are getting closer to convergence in some critical areas. And the hard work of finding landing zones is starting to happen. In particular, I would like to thank the subsidiary body chairs for staying up late last night to put pen to paper and outline the initial, essential elements of the Global Stocktake.

I am encouraged that these elements are being socialized among the parties and can provide the basis for negotiations on a text. Our approach should look back, be comprehensive in identifying the gaps, give clear direction for the way forward and inform the next round of NDCs.

The Global Stocktake gives us an unprecedented opportunity to synthesize the key pillars of the Paris Agreement. It allows us to connect mitigation, adaptation and means of implementation in a holistic way. Done right, it can set the highest bar for ambition, recognize the different starting points of every party and ensure equity for all. And now, I encourage you to continue to engage… and use all the tools we have, to support the process and find common ground.

We need parties to step up as early as possible so we can facilitate the work towards a decision. This decision needs to send clear, practical guidance to the world on how to close all the gaps revealed by the Global Stocktake. And let me just add; that together with the High-level Committee, we will ensure that the political signals coming out of the high-level Events will positively guide the evolution of the text. We need to ensure transparency and inclusion. And we need to ensure that the division of labor between the SB chairs and Ministerial co-facilitators, working under my guidance, is clearly defined. In this regard, I would like to thank the ministers who have worked diligently to assist me in engaging at the political level.

I intend to make these informal summaries available to all Parties. On mitigation… I have been very encouraged by the change in tone that I have heard and the consistent ambition to keep 1.5 within reach. It is no longer a question of if the energy transition will happen, but when, how fast and how can we do it in a way that leaves no one behind. There is also clarity that, as we set global targets, nations must be free to set their own pathway to getting there. In that context, I have heard practical conversations about reducing emissions from every source across every industry, including agriculture.

In these discussions, I have heard talk on a wide range of actions, including enabling policies, expanding renewables, improving energy efficiency, pursuing nature-based solutions and exploring all abatement technologies. I also continue to hear strong views about including language on fossil fuels and renewables in the negotiated text. I invite you to take this conversation forward. We must jointly figure out the next steps. And we must come to COP28 ready with solutions. There is a lot of positive energy on mitigation and many countries across the spectrum spoke about their strong ambition and political will.

Yet the fact remains that one of the biggest obstacles to progress… is the financial framework that can provide the right conditions for investment. And on finance, this is not about public finance or private finance. It is about both. There is recognition that we need to create a new ecosystem that makes all forms of finance, more available, more accessible and more affordable. The issue of sources of finance remains unresolved.

We need to address the inequity that makes the cost of capital for a solar farm in the Global South several times more expensive than in the North. For this, we need high level institutional reform as well as practical market mechanisms to lower risk and attract private investment. The initial recommendations of the Independent high-level Expert Group can help, as they focus on rebuilding trust, framing climate investments as economic opportunity and delivering finance at scale. And we need to restore confidence that climate finance is actually being delivered. This means certainty on the 100 billion, increased contributions to the Green Climate Fund, pledges to the adaptation fund and early pledges on Loss and Damage. Let me be clear on that. We need Parties to step up and make the necessary commitments.

There was also agreement of the fact that COP28 must lay the foundations for the New Collective Quantified Goal at COP29. If we cannot progress on finance… we will also be held back on adaptation. Adaptation is not receiving a fair share of climate finance. I am hearing from many of you that the process has lost its way… that we need a clear definition of what success looks like at the political level.

We need a unifying destination… we need to build coalitions around a clear framework and indicators… and we need to drive action. In simple terms… we need the equivalent of a guiding star like the 1.5 degrees has been for mitigation. Many of you said you would like the Global Goal on Adaptation to be broken down into themes… so it is easier to track and deliver progress. This is something we need to seriously explore… and I ask the parties to come to COP28 with solutions.

Finally… on loss and damage… on taking action for the world’s most climate vulnerable people. I said it yesterday, and I will say it again… we must deliver on the fund and funding arrangements for loss and damage. Very soon, the fifth meeting of the Transitional Committee will convene in the UAE. We need clear and strong recommendations, and I ask you to empower your officials to overcome the differences that remain. We must build bridges on the three key issues: the institutional arrangements… governance and sources of funding.

And let me be clear: we have no time to unpick previous decisions. This is the time for progress, not retreat. My friends… throughout this process, we will be open and transparent… andensure there is space for technical work as well as the political will to address the big questions.

I am committed to running an inclusive, transparent process. Observers play an important role in ensuring transparency. We should ensure that we find appropriate ways to include them.I will continue to be clear about my expectations from the parties in the lead up to… and during… COP28.

We need to get on with the work.

There is no time for delay.

We should use every single day between now and the beginning of COP28 to make progress on all the elements.

We are at a decisive point on our journey to ensuring successful outcomes at COP28, which the world expects. So, everything we do from this point must be about accelerating.

That means working on advancing the negotiations on the actual decisions, and on the foundations for action. Following the conclusion of the Pre-COP, and taking into account your valuable contributions, I will take stock of the state of negotiations.

And I will reflect on the optimal process to ensure the most ambitious outcomes. We can show we are serious by turning up in a few weeks time fully prepared to agree the agenda on day one.

I will say one more time to you.
Great power means great responsibility. You have the power. You have the responsibility. Let’s get the traction for action. Solidarity for humanity.
Let’s unite.
Let’s act.
Let’s deliver.

Thank you.

Report back of Minister Co-Pairs for Adaptation at Closing of Pre-COP, 31 October 2023


Minister McAllister and I facilitated the breakout groups on adaptation issues. All speakers made clear the central importance of adaptation and the need for enhanced and concrete adaptation actions.

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Colleagues, we all agree on the importance of adaptation action and the need to enhance efforts and support.

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Report back of Minister Co-Pairs for Mitigation at Closing of Pre-COP, 31 October 2023


We had rich and fruitful discussion on mitigation, and we thank everyone who participated in the discussion for sharing your useful inputs and perspectives.

A recurring theme is that the Paris Agreement is working and has made a positive difference towards the temperature goal, even if further efforts are necessary. Another recurring theme that we heard was that it is crucial for COP28 to send a strong signal on global ambition to demonstrate that Parties are taking mitigation seriously and working earnestly to keep 1.5°C within reach.

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We also heard calls for strengthened ambition in NDCs, for some including a call to include quantified economy-wide mitigation targets for all greenhouse gases, taking into account different circumstances.

Some expressed reservations with the global targets as suggested by parties as it is a top-down approach, and does not respect national sovereignty, or take into account the different starting points and national circumstances.

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Informal Report back of Minister Co-Pairs for Finance at Closing of Pre-COP, 31 October 2023


The discussions covered three main topics: the potential outcomes on finance, the new quantified goal on finance, how to bridge the gap on Article 2.1.c

Deliberations were very rich with wide participation from developing and developed countries, I would summarize the main points as follows:

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Min Fouad provided a comprehensive summary.

What I noticed is that yesterday, we seemed to move the dial, even if slightly, towards consensus, and I will report my optimism back to Minister Guilbeault, who, for those of you who know him, know he wishes he were here with us.

Adding to Min Fouad’s excellent readout, I heard a few tangible ways forward:


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15 Nov


Download Letter to Parties Volume 4, 15 November 2023
9 Nov


Download Letter to Parties Volume 3, 09 November 2023
17 Oct


Download Letter to Parties Volume 2, 17 October 2023